Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
Beyond Pesticides offers resources below to evaluate the health and ecological effects of specific chemical exposure from ACTIVE INGREDIENTS in pesticide products, as well as regulatory information and supporting scientific documents. Because various pesticide products can contain more than one active ingredient, it is important to READ the LABEL to determine chemical components.
With 192 different active ingredients and counting, it is essential to establish the connection between the use of these chemicals and their respective hazards.
View the step-by-step guide on how to search for the active ingredient(s) in pesticide products below:
- Go to U.S. EPA's Pesticide Product and Label System and enter the product name. The generic product name may vary.
- After searching, click on the chemical ingredients tab or the link for the most recent label to find Active Ingredients.
Chemical List Label List
If one selects the chemical ingredients tab, skip to Step 4 . If not, proceed to step number 3
- To find the active ingredient(s) on the label, search for the page in the document containing the date of registration. Usually, the active ingredients section occurs within the first few pages of the label document.
- Return to the Beyond Pesticides Gateway and search for the active ingredient name in the yellow box to the right or from the list below.
- Fact Sheet: Malathion.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Organophosphate insecticide
- Uses: Alfalfa; apricot; asparagus; avocado; barley; bean (succulent and dry); beets (table); birdsfoot trefoil; blackberry; blueberry; boysenberry; broccoli; broccoli raab; Brussels sprout; cabbage (including Chinese); carrot; cauliflower; celery; chayote; cherry; chestnut; clover; collards; corn (field; sweet; and pop); cotton; cucumber; currant; dandelion; date; dewberry; eggplant; endive; escarole; potato; fig; garlic; gooseberry; grape; grapefruit; guava; hay grass; hops;
horseradish; kale; kohlrabi; kumquat; leek; lemon; lespedeza; lettuce (head and leaf); lime; loganberry; lupine; macadamia nut; mango; melon; mint; mushroom; mustard greens; nectarines; oats; okra; onion; orange; papaya; parsley; parsnip; passion fruit; pea; peach; pear; pecan; pepper; pineapple; pumpkin; radish; raspberry; rice; rutabaga; rye; salsify; shallot; sorghum; spinach; spring wheat; squash; strawberry; sweet potato; Swiss chard; tangelo; tangerine; tomato (including tomatillo); turnip; vetch; walnut; watercress; watermelon; wheat (spring, and winter); wild rice; and yam; indoor stored commodity treatment and empty storage facilities for barley, corn, oats, rye, and wheat. Homeowner outdoor uses: ornamental flowering plants, ornamental lawns, ornamental turf, vegetable gardens and fruit trees; ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees; Christmas tree
plantations; slash pine; ornamental nursery stock; woody plants; building perimeters (domestic dwellings as well as commercial structures); uncultivated nonagricultural areas; outdoor garbage
dumps; intermittently flooded areas; irrigation systems; pastures; and rangeland. Treatment of headlice and their eggs.
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Least-toxic outdoor residential control, Least-toxic head lice control, Least-toxic mosquito cotnrol
- Beyond Pesticides rating: Toxic
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Suggestive evidence (26)
- Endocrine Disruption: Yes (30)
- Reproductive Effects: Yes (13)
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (11)
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes (4)
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes (6)
- Birth/Developmental: Yes (7)
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes (4)
- Potential Leacher: Yes (4)
- Toxic to Birds: Yes (8)
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (8)
- Toxic to Bees: Yes (8)
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Biological Evaluation Chapters for Malathion ESA Assessment (2017)
- Beyond Pesticides' Experimental Use Permits comments (3/2017)
- Beyond Pesticides' Human Health Draft Risk Assessment for Registration Review comments (12/2016)
- EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) signed (7/2006)
- NRDC and friends revised risk assessment comments (2005)
- Beyond Pesticides' Cumulative Risk Organophosphate comments (2002)
- Beyond Pesticides' preliminary risk assessment comments (2000)
- Supporting information:
- Asthma, Children and Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides)
- NCAP Malathion Factsheet (Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides)
- Extoxnet Malathion Factsheet (Extension Toxicology Network)
- PAN Pesticides Database:Malathion (Pesticide Action Network)
- Scorecard Malathion Factsheet (Environmental Defense Fund)
- ABC Malathion Factsheet (American Bird Conservancy)
- CHEC Malathion Factsheet (Children's Health Environmental Coalition)
- Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate. Lancet Oncol. 2015 May; 16(5):490-1.
- Cytogenetic evaluation of malathion-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Moore PD, Patlolla AK, Tchounwou PB. 2011. Mutat Res. 725(1-2):78-82
- Acute Illnesses Associated With Pesticide Exposure at Schools. Alarcon, W. et. al. 2005. Journal of the American Medical Association 294(4): 455-465.
- Comparison of pesticide levels in carpet dust and self-reported pest treatment practices in four US sites. Colt, J. et. al. 2004.Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14:74–83
- US EPA's regulatory pesticide evaluations need clearer guidelines for considering mammary gland tumors and other mammary gland effects. Cardona, B. and Rudel, R.A., 2020. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, p.110927.
- Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study. von Ehrenstein, et al. 2019. BMJ 2019;364:l962
- Biomonitoring of Toxic Effects of Pesticides in Occupationally Exposed Individuals.. Arshad M, Siddiqa M, Rashid S, Hashmi I, et al. 2016. Saf Health Work. 7(2):156-60
- Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/suburban Children.. Lu C, Barr DB, Pearson MA, Waller LA. 2008. Environ Health Perspect. 216(4):537-42.
- Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.. Koutros S, Berndt SI, Hughes Barry K et al. 2013. PLoS One. 8(4):e58195
- Impact of isomalathion on malathion cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human HepaRG cells.. Josse R, Sharanek A, Savary CC, Guillouzo A. 2014. Chem Biol Interact. 209:68-76
- In vitro-in vivo correlations for endocrine activity of a mixture of currently used pesticides.. Taxvig C, Hadrup N, Boberg J, et al. 2013. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.272(3):757-66
- Association of Pesticides and Kidney Function among Adults in the US Population 2001–2010. Wan, E.T., Darssan, D., Karatela, S., Reid, S. and Osborne, N. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health.