Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
Beyond Pesticides offers resources below to evaluate the health and ecological effects of specific chemical exposure from ACTIVE INGREDIENTS in pesticide products, as well as regulatory information and supporting scientific documents. Because various pesticide products can contain more than one active ingredient, it is important to READ the LABEL to determine chemical components.
With 192 different active ingredients and counting, it is essential to establish the connection between the use of these chemicals and their respective hazards.
View the step-by-step guide on how to search for the active ingredient(s) in pesticide products below:
- Go to U.S. EPA's Pesticide Product and Label System and enter the product name. The generic product name may vary.
- After searching, click on the chemical ingredients tab or the link for the most recent label to find Active Ingredients.
Chemical List Label List
If one selects the chemical ingredients tab, skip to Step 4 . If not, proceed to step number 3
- To find the active ingredient(s) on the label, search for the page in the document containing the date of registration. Usually, the active ingredients section occurs within the first few pages of the label document.
- Return to the Beyond Pesticides Gateway and search for the active ingredient name in the yellow box to the right or from the list below.
Piperonyl butoxide (PBO)
- Fact Sheet: Piperonyl Butoxide.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Pesticide synergist
- Uses: Preharvest and postharvest uses on crops, direct and indirect treatments of livestock animals and premises, treatments of commercial and industrial facilities and storage areas where raw and processed food/feed commodities are stored or processed, and mosquito abatement areas; targets ants, worms, beetles, mites, flies, gnats, spiders, weevils, caterpillars, grubs, moths, ticks, lice, wasps, aphids, midges, and fish.
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Least-toxic mosquito control
- Beyond Pesticides rating: Toxic
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Possible (8)
- Endocrine Disruption: Yes (36)
- Reproductive Effects: Yes (6)
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (6)
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes (7)
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes (7)
- Birth/Developmental: Not documented
- Detected in Groundwater: Not documented
- Potential Leacher: Not documented
- Toxic to Birds: Not documented
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (7)
- Toxic to Bees: Not documented
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Supporting information:
- Influence of pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of rat brain synaptosomes and leukocyte membranes. Grosman, N. 2005. Int Immunopharmacol. 5(2):263-70.
- Global DNA methylation screening of liver in piperonyl butoxide-treated mice in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model.. Yafune A, Kawai M, Itahashi M, et al. 2013. Toxicol Lett. 222(3):295-302
- Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-Month Neurodevelopment. Horton, et al. 2011. Pediatrics, Online February 7, 2011 (doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0133)