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- Fact Sheets: permethrin.pdf, Synthetic Pyrethroids.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide
- Uses: Food/feed crops, livestock and livestock housing, modes of transportation, structures, buildings (including food handling establishments), public health mosquito abatement programs, residential use sites including use in outdoor and indoor spaces, pets, and clothing (impregnated and ready to use formulations).
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Least-toxic insect control, Least-toxic mosquito control
- Beyond Pesticides rating:
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Likely ()
- Endocrine Disruption: Yes ()
- Reproductive Effects: Yes ()
- Neurotoxicity: Yes ()
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes ()
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes ()
- Birth/Developmental: Not documented
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes ()
- Potential Leacher: Not documented
- Toxic to Birds: Not documented
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes ()
- Toxic to Bees: Yes ()
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Supporting information:
- Behavioural disorders in 6-year-old children and pyrethroid insecticide exposure: the PELAGIE mother–child cohort. Viel, JF, Rouget,F et al. 2017. Occup Environ Med. 74(4):275-281
- Association of pyrethroid pesticide exposure with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children. Wagner-Schuman M, Richardson JR, Auinger P, et al. 2015. Environ Health.14:44.
- Neurodevelopmental disorders and prenatal residential proximity to agricultural pesticides: the CHARGE study. Shelton JF, Geraghty EM, Tancredi DJ, et al. 2014. Environ Health Perspect. 122(10):1103-9.
- Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and Purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Abdel-Rahman, A. et. al. 2001 Exp Neurol. 172(1):153-71.
- A pilot study of pesticides and PCBs in the breast milk of women residing in urban and agricultural communities of California.. Weldon RH, Barr DB, Trujillo C, et al. 2011. J Environ Monit. 13(11):3136-44.
- Lifetime Pesticide Use and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in a Prospective Cohort of Male Farmers. Hofmann, J.N., Beane Freeman, L.E., Murata, K., Andreotti, G., Shearer, J.J., Thoren, K., Ramanathan, L., Parks, C.G., Koutros, S., Lerro, C.C. and Liu, D., 2021. Environmental Health Perspectives, 129(1), p.017003.
- Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study. von Ehrenstein, et al. 2019. BMJ 2019;364:l962
- Early life exposure to permethrin: a progressive animal model of Parkinson's disease.. Nasuti C, Brunori G, Eusepi P, Marinelli L, et al. 2016. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 83:80-86.
- Dopaminergic system modulation, behavioral changes, and oxidative stress after neonatal administration of pyrethroids.. Nasuti C, Gabbianelli R, Falcioni ML, et al.2007. Toxicology. 229(3):194-205.
- Effects of a mixture of pesticides on the adult female reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Lewis rats. Pascotto VM, Guerra MT, Franci JA, et al. 2015. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 78(9):602-16
- Effects of early life permethrin exposure on spatial working memory and on monoamine levels in different brain areas of pre-senescent rats.. Nasuti C, Carloni M, Fedeli D, et al. 2013. Toxicology. 303:162-8
- Evidence for diazinon-mediated inhibition of cis-permethrin metabolism and its effects on reproductive toxicity in adult male mice.. Wang D, Kamijima M, Okamura A, et al. 2012. Reprod Toxicol. 34(4):489-97
- Genotoxicity studies on permethrin, DEET and diazinon in primary human nasal mucosal cells. Tisch, M., et al. 2002. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 259:150-153.
- Home-based community health worker intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers' children: A randomized-controlled trial.. Salvatore AL, Castorina R, Camacho J, et al. 2015. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 25(6):608-15