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- Fact Sheet: Paraquat.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Quaternary nitrogen herbicide
- Uses: Preplant or preemergence weed control on vegetables, grains, cotton, grasses, sugar cane, peanuts, potatoes, and tree plantation areas; postemergence around fruit crops, vegetables, trees, vines, grains, soybeans, and sugar cane; during the dormant season on clover and other legumes; as a desiccant or harvest aid on cotton, dry beans, soybeans, potatoes, sunflowers, and sugar cane; and as a post harvest desiccant on staked tomatoes; applied to pine trees to induce resin soaking. non-crop areas include public airports, electric transformer stations and around commercial buildings.
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Least-toxic weed control
- Beyond Pesticides rating:
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Likely ()
- Endocrine Disruption: Not documented
- Reproductive Effects: Yes ()
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (, , )
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes ()
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes ()
- Birth/Developmental: Not documented
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes ()
- Potential Leacher: Likely (, )
- Toxic to Birds: Yes ()
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (, , )
- Toxic to Bees: Likely ()
- Regulatory Status:
- Supporting information:
- Drosophila DJ-1 Mutants Are Selectively Sensitive to Environmental Toxins Associated with Parkinson’s Disease. Meulener, M. et. al. 2005. Current Biology 15(17):1572-1577.
- Age-related irreversible progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the paraquat and maneb model of the Parkinson's disease phenotype.. Thiruchelvam, M., et al. 2003. Eur J Neurosci 18(3):589-600
- Agricultural pesticide use and risk of glioma in Nebraska, United States. Lee, W., et al. 2005. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62(11):786-792
- Association between Parkinson's Disease and Cigarette Smoking, Rural Living, Well-Water Consumption, Farming and Pesticide Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.. Breckenridge CB, Berry C, Chang ET, et al. 2016. PLoS One.11(4):e0151841
- Cognitive impairment and increased Aβ levels induced by paraquat exposure are attenuated by enhanced removal of mitochondrial H2O2.. Chen, L., et al. 2011. Neurobiol Aging. [Epub ahead of print
- Combined exposure to agriculture pesticides, paraquat and maneb, induces alterations in the N/OFQ-NOPr and PDYN/KOPr systems in rats: Relevance to sporadic Parkinson's disease.. Bastías-Candia S, Di Benedetto M, D'Addario C, Candeletti S, Romualdi P. 2013. Environ Toxicol. doi: 10.1002/tox.21943
- Developmental exposure to the pesticides paraquat and maneb and the Parkinson's disease phenotype.. Thiruchelvam, M., et al. 2002. Neurotoxicology 23(4-5):621-633
- Developmental pesticide exposures and the Parkinson's disease phenotype.. Cory-Slechta D.A., et al. 2005. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 73:136–139
- Dopamine Transporter Genetic Variants and Pesticides in Parkinson’s Disease. Ritz BR, et al. 2009. Environ Health Perspect 117(6)
- Effects of melatonin in rats in the initial third stage of pregnancy exposed to sub-lethal doses of herbicides.. Almeida LL, Teixeira ÁAC, Soares AF, Cunha FMD, et al. Acta Histochem. 119(3):220-227.
- Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.. Brouwer M, Huss A, van der Mark M, Nijssen PCG, et al. 2017. Environ Int. 107:100-110.
- The herbicide paraquat-induced molecular mechanisms in the development of acute lung injury and lung fibrosis. Subbiah, R. and Tiwari, R.R., 2020. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, pp.1-97.
- Cellular injury leading to oxidative stress in acute poisoning with potassium permanganate/oxalic acid, paraquat, and glyphosate surfactant herbicide. Wijerathna, T.M., Mohamed, F., Gawarammana, I.B., Wunnapuk, K., Dissanayake, D.M., Shihana, F. and Buckley, N.A., 2020. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 80, p.103510.
- Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease.. Nandipati S, Litvan I. 2016. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 13(9).
- Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease.. Pezzoli G, Cereda E. 2013. Neurology. 80(22):2035-41
- Genetic modification of the association of paraquat and Parkinson's disease. Goldman, S, Kamel, F, Webster Ross, G, et al. 2012. Movement Disorders. 27(13):1652-1658