Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
- Fact Sheet: 2-4-D.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Phenoxy herbicide
- Uses: Registered for field, fruit, and vegetable crops, turf, lawns, rights-of-way, aquatic sites, forestry applications, post-emergence broadleaf weeds, plant growth regulator in citrus
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Organic Lawn care
- Beyond Pesticides rating: Toxic
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Yes (4)
- Endocrine Disruption: Probable (5)
- Reproductive Effects: Yes (6)
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (7)
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes (7)
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes (4)
- Birth/Developmental: Yes (4)
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes (4)
- Potential Leacher: Yes (7)
- Toxic to Birds: Yes (4)
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (8)
- Toxic to Bees: Yes (4)
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Beyond Pesticides' comments on Preliminary Ecological Risk Assessment for Registration review (7/2017)
- EPA Registration Review (2017)
- Beyond Pestides' comments on registration of Enlist Duo (12/2016)
- Registration of Enlist Duo (2014)
- EPA Reregistration Eligibility Document (RED) signed (6/2005)
- Beyond Pesticides' RED comments (8/2004)
- Supporting information:
- Daily News Blog entries (Beyond Pesticides)
- Asthma, Children and Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides)
- Children & Lawn Chemicals Don't Mix (Beyond Pesticides)
- The Safer Choice (Beyond Pesticides)
- NCAP 2,4-D Factsheet (Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides)
- PAN Pesticides Database: 2,4-D (Pesticide Action Network)
- IARC Monographs evaluate DDT, lindane, and 2,4-D. (2015)
- 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-resistant crops and the potential for evolution of 2,4-D-resistant weeds. Egan JF, Maxwell BD, Mortensen DA, et al. 2011. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 108(11): E37.
- Cancer and pesticides: an overview and some results of the Italian multicenter case-control study on hematolymphopoietic malignancies
Miligi, L., et al. 2006. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
- Breast cancer risk in Hispanic agricultural workers in California
Mills, P.K. and Yang, R. 2005. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health.
- Lymphohematopoietic cancers in the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), 1988-2001. Mills PK, Yang R, Riordan D. 2005. Cancer Causes Control.
- Herbicide exposure and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish terriers, Glickman, et. al. 2004. Journal of the American Medical Association.
- Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and encodrine disruption. Garry, V.F., et al. 2001. Environ Health Pers.
- A Case–Control Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Exposure to Pesticides Journal of the American Cancer Society, 1999.
- Pesticides in Household Dust and Soil: Exposure Pathways for Children of Agricultural Families, Simcox, et. al. 1995.Environmental Health Perspectives.
- Pesticides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Zahm SH and Blair A. 1992. Cancer Res.
- A case-control study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in eastern Nebraska.. Zahm, S., et al. 1990. Epidemiology 1(5):349-356
- A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among iowa corn farmers.. Lerro CC, Beane Freeman LE, Portengen L, Kang D, et al. 2017. Environ Mol Mutagen. 58(1):30-38.
- Agricultural exposures and gastric cancer risk in Hispanic farm workers in California. Mills, P.K., and Yang, R.C. 2007. Environ Res 104(2):282-289.
- Agricultural herbicide use and a risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma.. Hoar, S., et al. 1986. Journal of the American Medical Association 259(9): 1141-1147
- Biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the United States and Canada: interpretation in a public health risk assessment context using Biomonitoring Equivalents. Aylward LL et al. 2010. Environ Health Perspect. 118(2):177-81
- Autism: Transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents. Román, G, C. 2007. Journal of the Neurological Sciences; 262(1-2), pp 15-26
- Birth Malformations and Other Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Four U.S. Wheat-Producing States.. Schreinemachers, D. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(9).
- Cancer and pesticides: an overview and some results of the Italian multicenter case-control study on hematolymphopoietic malignancies. Miligi, L., et al. 2006. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1076:366-377
- Developmental Toxicity of a Commercial Herbicide Mixture in Mice: I. Effects on Embryo Implantation and Litter Size. Cavieres, M., et al. 2002. Environ Health Perspect 110:1081-1085