Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
Beyond Pesticides offers resources below to evaluate the health and ecological effects of specific chemical exposure from ACTIVE INGREDIENTS in pesticide products, as well as regulatory information and supporting scientific documents. Because various pesticide products can contain more than one active ingredient, it is important to READ the LABEL to determine chemical components.
With 192 different active ingredients and counting, it is essential to establish the connection between the use of these chemicals and their respective hazards.
View the step-by-step guide on how to search for the active ingredient(s) in pesticide products below:
- Go to U.S. EPA's Pesticide Product and Label System and enter the product name. The generic product name may vary.
- After searching, click on the chemical ingredients tab or the link for the most recent label to find Active Ingredients.
Chemical List Label List
If one selects the chemical ingredients tab, skip to Step 4 . If not, proceed to step number 3
- To find the active ingredient(s) on the label, search for the page in the document containing the date of registration. Usually, the active ingredients section occurs within the first few pages of the label document.
- Return to the Beyond Pesticides Gateway and search for the active ingredient name in the yellow box to the right or from the list below.
- Fact Sheet: Chlorpyrifos.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Organophosphate insecticide
- Uses: food and feed crops, golf courses, as a non-structural wood treatment, and as an adult mosquitocide
- Alternatives: Agriculture, Nonresidential buildings
- Beyond Pesticides rating: Toxic
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Not documented
- Endocrine Disruption: Yes (30)
- Reproductive Effects: Yes (6)
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (8)
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes (17)
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes (4)
- Birth/Developmental: Yes (6)
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes (6)
- Potential Leacher: Yes (6)
- Toxic to Birds: Yes (8)
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (8, 111)
- Toxic to Bees: Yes (8)
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Tolerance Revocations: Chlorpyrifos (2021)
- Beyond Pesticides' California Department of Pesticide Regulation Human Health Effects comments (2017)
- Beyond Pesticides' comments on EPA Tolerance Revocations (2017)
- EPA denies a petition requesting that EPA revoke all tolerances for the pesticide chlorpyrifos (2017)
- EPA Requests for Columbia Study's Data (2017)
- Revised 2016 Human Health Risk Assessment
- NMFS Biological Opinion for Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, and Malathion (2017)
- EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) signed (7/2006)
- Beyond Pesticides' EPA Risk Assessment comments (2000)
- Supporting information:
- Daily News Blog entries (Beyond Pesticides)
- Widely Used Pesticide in Food Production Damages Children’s Brains (Beyond Pesticides, 2017)
- Asthma, Children and Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides)
- The Low Down on Dursban (Beyond Pesticides)
- Alternatives to Using Chlorpyrifos (Beyond Pesticides)
- Safer Choice (Beyond Pesticides)
- NCAP Chlorpyrifos Factsheet (Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides)
- Extoxnet Chlorpyrifos Factsheet (Extension Toxicology Network)
- PAN Pesticides Database:Chlorpyrifos (Pesticide Action Network)
- Effects of chlorpyrifos on the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei Duarte-Restrepo, E., Jaramillo-Colorado, B.E. and Duarte-Jaramillo, L., 2020. PloS one, 15(4), p.e0231310.
- Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide. Rauh VA, Perera FP, Horton MK, et al. 2012. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109(20):7871-6.
- Chlorpyrifos exposure and urban residential environment characteristics as determinants of early childhood neurodevelopment. Lovasi GS, Quinn JW, Rauh VA, et al. 2011. Am J Public Health. 101(1):63-70.
- Impact of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure on neurodevelopment in the first 3 years of life among inner-city children. Rauh VA, Garfinkel R, Perera FP, et al. 2006. Pediatrics.118(6):e1845-59.
- Long-term sex selective hormonal and behavior alterations in mice exposed to low doses of chlorpyrifos in utero. Haviland, J. A., Butz, D. E., Porter, W.P. 2009. Reproductive Toxicology. 29(1):74-79
- Top 15 Farmworker Poison
- 7-Year Neurodevelopmental Scores and Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos, a Common Agricultural Pesticide. Rauh V, Arunajadai S, Horton M, Perera F, Hoepner L, Barr DB, et al. 2011. Environ Health Perspect. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003160
- A pilot study of pesticides and PCBs in the breast milk of women residing in urban and agricultural communities of California.. Weldon RH, Barr DB, Trujillo C, et al. 2011. J Environ Monit. 13(11):3136-44.
- Acute exposure to chlorpyrifos caused NADPH oxidase mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in a striatal cell model of Huntington’s disease. Dominah, G.A., McMinimy, R.A., Kallon, S. and Kwakye, G.F., 2017. Neurotoxicology, 60, pp.54-69.
- ADHD-like behaviour in the offspring of female rats exposed to low chlorpyrifos doses before pregnancy. Grabovska S, Salyha Y. 2015. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 66(2):121-7
- Adulthood dietary exposure to a common pesticide leads to an obese-like phenotype and a diabetic profile in apoE3 mice.. Peris-Sampedro F, Cabré M, Basaure P, Reverte I, et al. 2015. Environ Res. 142:169-76
- Agreement of pesticide biomarkers between morning void and 24-h urine samples from farmers and their children. Scher, D. et al. 2007, J. Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology; 17, 350–357
- Assessment of genetic effects and pesticide exposure of farmers in NW Greece. Moshou, H., Karakitsou, A., Yfanti, F., Hela, D., Vlastos, D., Paschalidou, A.K., Kassomenos, P. and Petrou, I., 2020. Environmental Research, p.109558.
- Anthropogenic stressors impact fish sensory development and survival via thyroid disruption. Besson, M., Feeney, W.E., Moniz, I., François, L., Brooker, R.M., Holzer, G., Metian, M., Roux, N., Laudet, V. and Lecchini, D., 2020. Nature communications, 11(1), pp.1-10.
- Potential short-term neurobehavioral alterations in children associated with a peak pesticide spray season: The Mother’s Day flower harvest in Ecuador. Suarez-Lopez, J.R., Checkoway, H., Jacobs Jr, D.R., Al-Delaimy, W.K. and Gahagan, S., 2017. Neurotoxicology, 60, pp.125-133.
- Assessing Field‐Scale Risks of Foliar Insecticide Applications to Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) Larvae. Krishnan, N., Zhang, Y., Bidne, K.G., Hellmich, R.L., Coats, J.R. and Bradbury, S.P., 2020. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 39(4), pp.923-941.
- Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study. von Ehrenstein, et al. 2019. BMJ 2019;364:l962
- Biomonitoring of persons exposed to insecticides used in residences. Krieger, R.I., Bernard, C.E., Dinoff, T.M., Ross J.H. and Williams R.L. 2001. Ann Occup Hyg, 45 (suppl 1): S143-S153. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/45.suppl_1.S143
- Blood α-synuclein in agricultural pesticide handlers in central Washington State.. Searles Nielsen S, Checkoway H, Zhang J, et al. 2015. Environ Res.136:75-81.
- Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide. Rauh, V. A., F. P. Perera, M. K. Horton, R. M. Whyatt, et al. 2012. PNAS.109 (20): 7871-6.
- Cancer Incidence Among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in the Agricultural Health Study. Lee WJ, et al. 2004. J Natl Cancer Inst. 96(23):1781-9.
- Children's Exposure to Chlorpyrifos and Parathion in an Agricultural Community in Central Washington State. Fenske, R.A., Lu, C, Barr, D, and Needham, L. 2002. Environ Health Perspect. 11(5):: 549–553
- Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)-associated birth defects: report of four cases.. Sherman, J.D. 1996. Environmental Health Perspectives, 51(1).
- Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment. Lovasi , G. et al. 2010. Am J Public Health. AJPH.2009.168419v1
- Chlorpyrifos inhibits cell proliferation through ERK1/2 phosphorylation in breast cancer cell lines.. Ventura C, Venturino A, Miret N, et al. 2015. Chemosphere. 120:343-50.
- Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure does not promote prostate cancer in prostate specific PTEN mutant mice.. Svensson RU, Bannick NL, Marin MJ, et al. 2013. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol.32(1):29-39
- Chronic chlorpyrifos exposure elicits diet-specific effects on metabolism and the gut microbiome in rats.. Fang B, Li JW, Zhang M, Ren FZ, Pang GF. 2018. Food Chem Toxicol. 111:144-152
- Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.. Schmidt RJ, Kogan V, Shelton JF, Delwiche L, Hansen RL, et al. 2017. Environ Health Perspect. 125(9):097007.
- Comparison of residents' pesticide exposure with predictions obtained using the UK regulatory exposure assessment approach.. Galea KS, MacCalman L, Jones K, Cocker J, et al. 2015. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.73(2):634-43.
- Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and biomolecular studies on chlorpyrifos and carbaryl.. Lee I, Eriksson P, Fredriksson A, et al. 2015. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. pii: S0041-008X(15)30066-1.
- Developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos modeled in vitro: Comparative effects of metabolites and other cholinesterase inhibitors on DNA synthesis in PC12 and C6 cells.. Qiao, D. et al. 2001. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(9):909-913.
- Developmental neurotoxicity of different pesticides in PC-12 cells in vitro.. Christen V, Rusconi M, Crettaz P, Fent K. 2017. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 325:25-36
- Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/suburban Children.. Lu C, Barr DB, Pearson MA, Waller LA. 2008. Environ Health Perspect. 216(4):537-42.
- Does early-life exposure to organophosphate insecticides lead to prediabetes and obesity. Slotkin, T.A. 2011. Reproductive Toxicology. 31: 297–301.
- Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?. Horton, M.K., L.G. Kahn, F. Perera, D.B. Barr and V. Rauh. 2012. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 34(5):534-41
- Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.. De Long NE, Holloway AC. 2017. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 10:101-109.
- Effects of maternal chlorpyrifos diet on social investigation and brain neuroendocrine markers in the offspring - a mouse study.. Venerosi A, Tait S, Stecca L, et al. 2015. Environ Health. 14:32.
- Effects of occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos on neuropsychological function: a prospective longitudinal study. Berent S, Giordani B, Albers JW, Garabrant DH, et al. 2014. Neurotoxicology. 41:44-53
- Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food.. Balinova AM, Mladenova RI, Shtereva DD. 2006. Food Addit Contam.23(9):895-901
- Effects of Transplacental Exposure to Environmental Pollutants on Birth Outcomes in a Multiethnic Population.. Perera, F. et al. Feb. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(2).
- Exposure to nonpersistent insecticides and male reproductive hormones.. Meeker JD, et al. 2006. Epidemiology;17(1):61-8
- Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Atlanta, GA.
- Gestational/perinatal chlorpyrifos exposure is not associated with autistic-like behaviors in rodents. Williams AL, DeSesso JM. 2014. Crit Rev Toxicol. 44(6):523-34
- Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children. Rauh, V. et al. 2006. Pediatrics, 118(6) pp. e1845-e1859
- Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. . Alaa-Eldin EA, El-Shafei DA, Abouhashem NS. 2016. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi:10.1007/s11356-016-7912-6
- Associations between persistent organic pollutants and endometriosis: A multiblock approach integrating metabolic and cytokine profiling. Matta, K., Lefebvre, T., Vigneau, E., Cariou, V., Marchand, P., Guitton, Y., Royer, A.L., Ploteau, S., Le Bizec, B., Antignac, J.P. and Cano-Sancho, G. Environment International, 158, p.106926.
- The pesticide chlorpyrifos promotes obesity by inhibiting diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. Wang, B., Tsakiridis, E.E., Zhang, S., Llanos, A., Desjardins, E.M., Yabut, J.M., Green, A.E., Day, E.A., Smith, B.K., Lally, J.S. and Wu, J. Nature communications, 12(1), pp.1-12.
- Genetic Polymorphisms of Pesticide-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Agricultural Workers and Thyroid Hormone Levels. Sirivarasai, J., Chanprasertyothin, S., Kongtip, P. and Woskie, S. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 14, p.3435.
- Pesticides applied to crops and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk in the U.S. Andrew, A., Zhou, J., Gui, J., Harrison, A., Shi, X., Li, M., Guetti, B., Nathan, R., Tischbein, M., Pioro, E.P. and Stommel, E. NeuroToxicology, 87, pp.128-135.
- Oxidative stress of glyphosate, AMPA and metabolites of pyrethroids and chlorpyrifos pesticides among primary school children in Cyprus. Makris, K.C., Efthymiou, N., Konstantinou, C., Anastasi, E., Schoeters, G., Kolossa-Gehring, M. and Katsonouri, A., Environmental Research, 212, p.113316.