Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
Beyond Pesticides offers resources below to evaluate the health and ecological effects of specific chemical exposure from ACTIVE INGREDIENTS in pesticide products, as well as regulatory information and supporting scientific documents. Because various pesticide products can contain more than one active ingredient, it is important to READ the LABEL to determine chemical components.
With 192 different active ingredients and counting, it is essential to establish the connection between the use of these chemicals and their respective hazards.
View the step-by-step guide on how to search for the active ingredient(s) in pesticide products below:
- Go to U.S. EPA's Pesticide Product and Label System and enter the product name. The generic product name may vary.
- After searching, click on the chemical ingredients tab or the link for the most recent label to find Active Ingredients.
Chemical List Label List
If one selects the chemical ingredients tab, skip to Step 4 . If not, proceed to step number 3
- To find the active ingredient(s) on the label, search for the page in the document containing the date of registration. Usually, the active ingredients section occurs within the first few pages of the label document.
- Return to the Beyond Pesticides Gateway and search for the active ingredient name in the yellow box to the right or from the list below.
- Fact Sheet: Atrazine.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Triazine herbicide
- Uses: To control broadleaf and grassy weeds in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane, wheat, guava, macadamia nuts, and range grasses and for several nonagricultural use sites such as ornamentals, Christmas trees, sod and residential lawns and golf courses (in the Southeast)
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Organic Lawn care
- Beyond Pesticides rating: Toxic
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Yes (11)
- Endocrine Disruption: Known (5)
- Reproductive Effects: Yes (7)
- Neurotoxicity: Yes (4)
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes (4)
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes (4)
- Birth/Developmental: Yes (7)
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes (4)
- Potential Leacher: Yes (4)
- Toxic to Birds: Not documented
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes (4)
- Toxic to Bees: Not documented
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- EPA's Atrazine Background and Updates
- Atrazine Monitoring Program Data and Results
- EPA Registration Review (2016)
- Draft Ecological Assessments for Triazines (2016)
- Beyond Pesticides' Draft Ecological Risk Assesment comments (10/2016)
- Atrazine EDSP Tier1 Screening Results (2015)
- Triazine Cumulative Risk Assessment (2006)
- EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) signed (4/2006)
- Beyond Pesticides' RED comments
- EPA's Atrazine Background and Updates
- Supporting information:
- Fighting Attacks on Inconvenient Science—and Scientists (Inside Climate News)
- Daily News Blog entries (Beyond Pesticides)
- Asthma, Children and Pesticides (Beyond Pesticides)
- NCAP Atrazine Fact Sheet (Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides)
- Children & Lawn Chemicals Don't Mix (Beyond Pesticides)
- The Safer Choice (Beyond Pesticides)
- PAN Pesticides Database: Atrazine (Pesticide Action Network)
- The Atrazine Saga and its Importance to the Future of Toxicology, Science, and Environmental and Human Health. Rohr, J.R., 2021. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 40(6), pp.1544-1558.
- Trends in pesticide concentrations and use for major rivers of the United States. Ryberg, K.R and Gilliom, R.J. 2015. Science of the Total Environment 538: 431–444.
- Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes. Hayes, T., et al. 2011. J. Steroid Biochem and Molecular Bio. 127(1-2):64-73.
- Still Poisoning the Well: Atrazine Continues to Contaminate Surface Water and Drinking Water in the United States. Wu. M, Quirindongo, M, et al. 2010. Natural Resources Defense Council. Washington DC
- Pesticide Mixtures, Endocrine Disruption, and Amphibian Declines: Are We Underestimating the Impact? Hayes et. al 2006. Environmental Health Perspectives.
- Debating How Much Weed Killer Is Safe in Your Water Glass. The New York Times, 2009.
- Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States. Winchester, et al. April 2009.
- A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among iowa corn farmers.. Lerro CC, Beane Freeman LE, Portengen L, Kang D, et al. 2017. Environ Mol Mutagen. 58(1):30-38.
- Agricultural risk factors for t(14;18) subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.. Schroeder, J., et al. 2001. Epidemiology 12(6):701-709
- Association between Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water and Preterm Birth, Taking Neighborhood Deprivation into Account: A Historic Cohort Study.. Albouy-Llaty M, Limousi F, Carles C, Dupuis A, et al. 2016. Int J Environ Res Public Health.13(8).
- Associations between stomach cancer incidence and drinking water contamination with atrazine and nitrate in Ontario (Canada) agroecosystems, 1987-1991. Van Leeuwen, J.A., et al. 1999. International Journal of Epidemiology 28:836-840.
- US EPA's regulatory pesticide evaluations need clearer guidelines for considering mammary gland tumors and other mammary gland effects. Cardona, B. and Rudel, R.A., 2020. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, p.110927.
- Atrazine in public water supplies and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study.. Inoue-Choi M, Weyer PJ, Jones RR, Booth BJ, et al. 2016. Occup Environ Med. 73(9):582-7
- Atrazine promotes RM1 prostate cancer cell proliferation by activating STAT3 signaling.. Hu K, Tian Y, Du Y, Huang L, Chen J, et al. 2016. Int J Oncol. 48(5):2166-74
- Cancer incidence among triazine herbicide manufacturing workers. MacLennan, P.A., et al. 2002. J Occup Environ Med 44(11):1048-1058.
- Characterization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on hormonal balance disruption in male and female adult rats.. Quignot N, Arnaud M, Robidel F, Lecomte A, et al. 2012. Reprod Toxicol. 33(3):339-52.
- Chemical predictors of wheeze among farmer pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.. Hoppin, JA, DM Umbach, SJ London, et al. 2002. M J Respir Crit Care Med 165: 683-689
- Combined effects of repeated administration of Bretmont Wipeout (glyphosate) and Ultrazin (atrazine) on testosterone, oxidative stress and sperm quality of Wistar rats.. Abarikwu SO, Akiri OF, et al. 2015. Toxicol Mech Methods.25(1):70-80.
- Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats. Stanko JP, et al. 2010. Reprod Toxicol. Epub ahead of print. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.07.006
- Pre-differentiation exposure to low-dose of atrazine results in persistent phenotypic changes in human neuronal cell lines. Xie, J., Lin, L., Sánchez, O.F., Bryan, C., Freeman, J.L. and Yuan, C., 2021. Environmental Pollution, 271, p.116379.
- In utero exposure to atrazine analytes and early menarche in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort.. Namulanda G, Taylor E, Maisonet M, Boyd Barr D, et al. 2017. Environ Res. 156:420-425.
- Atrazine Inhalation Worsen Pulmonary Fibrosis Regulating the Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor (Nrf2) Pathways Inducing Brain Comorbidities. D'Amico, R., Monaco, F., Fusco, R., Siracusa, R., Impellizzeri, D., Peritore, A.F., Crupi, R., Gugliandolo, E., Cuzzocrea, S., Di Paola, R. and Genovese, T. Cell Physiol Biochem, 55, pp.704-725.
- Atrazine Inhalation Worsen Pulmonary Fibrosis Regulating the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor (Nrf2) Pathways Inducing Brain Comorbidities. D’Amico, R., Monaco, F., Fusco, R., Siracusa, R., Impellizzeri, D., Peritore, A.F., Crupi, R., Gugliandolo, E., Cuzzocrea, S., Di Paola, R. and Genovese, T. Cell. Physiol. Biochem, 55, pp.704-725.
- Anthropogenic Contaminants and Histopathological Findings in Stranded Cetaceans in the Southeastern United States, 2012–2018. Page-Karjian, A., Lo, C.F., Ritchie, B., Harms, C.A., Rotstein, D.S., Han, S., Hassan, S.M., Lehner, A.F., Buchweitz, J.P., Thayer, V.G. and Sullivan, J.M., 2020. Frontiers in Marine Science, 7, p.630.
- Long-term maternal exposure to atrazine in the drinking water reduces penis length in the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii. Cook, L.E., Chen, Y., Renfree, M.B. and Pask, A.J., 2020. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 32(13), pp.1168-1168.