Gateway Health and Environmental Effects Citations

1. EPA weight-of evidence category, "not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity", usually due to inadequate data. US EPA, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. September 30, 2018.

2. US EPA Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. September 30, 2019.

3. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC) category, the agent (mixture) is possibly carcinogenic to humans. November 2, 2018.

4. Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET) Pesticide Information Profiles.

5. Illinois EPA, Endocrine Disruptors Strategy, February 1997.

6. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides (NCAP), Pesticide Factsheets.

7. Beyond Pesticides ChemWatch Factsheets. (Cited under factsheets on Beyond Pesticides Gateway)

8. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Reregistration Eligibility Decisions (REDs), Interim REDS (iREDs) and RED Factsheets.

9. Picloram causes birth defects when used in combination with 2,4-D (as is common in formulations), according to Reference #3.

10. EPA weight-of-evidence category, "possible human carcinogen." US EPA, 2004. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. July 29, 2004.

11. US EPA, 2000. Table 1: Toxicity Data by Category for Chemicals Listed under EPCRA Section 313. Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) Program.

12. EPA weight-of-evidence category, "Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (high dose); Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans (low doses)." US EPA, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. May 10, 2005.

13. Frazier, L. and M.L. Hage. 2001. Reproductive Hazards of the Workplace. Europe: Wiley. Table 10: Partial List of Reproductive Toxins.

14. Environmental Defense Fund, Scorecard Database.

15. EPA weight-of-evidence category, "Group B2 – Probable Human Carcinogen." US EPA, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. May 10, 2005.

16. EPA weight-of-evidence category, "Likely to be carcinogenic to humans." US EPA, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. May 10, 2005. 

17. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Right to Know Hazardous Substances Fact Sheets. Available online at

18. Gosselin, R.E., R.P. Smith, and H.C. Hodge. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Commerical Products, 5th edition. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.

19. Tew, J.E. 1996. Protecting Honeybees from Pesticides. Ohio State University Cooperative Extension.

20. Briggs, S.A. 1992. Basic Guide to Pesticides: Their Characteristics and Hazards. Washington, DC: The Rachel Carson Council, 98.

21. California Environmental Protection Agency. Proposition 65: Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. February 25, 2022.

22. US EPA, 2006. Hazard Assessment of the Organophosphates. Hazard ID Committee Report.

23. US EPA, 1995. Monosodium Methanearsonate and Disodium Methanearsonate; Toxic Chemical Release Reporting; Community Right-to-Know. Federal Register Environmental Documents.

24. US EPA. Integrated Risk Information System Database.

25. The Pesticide Management Education Program at Cornell University. Pesticide Active Ingredient Information.

26. EPA weight-of-evidence category, "Suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential." US EPA, 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. List of Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. May 10, 2005.

27. National Library of Medicine. PubChem Hazardous Substances Database. PubChem ( 

28. Colborn, T., et al. 1994. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 14:469-489.

29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs.

30. Colborn, T., D. Dumanoski, and J.P. Myers. 1996. Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? New York: Dutton.

31. Feldman, J. and T. Shistar. 1997. Poison Poles: A Report About their toxic trail and the safer alternatives. National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides.

32. Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), Endosulfan- Risk Characterization Document. California Environmental Protection Agency, 2007.

33. Californians for Alternatives to Toxics (CATs). Toxicological Profiles.

34. Insecticide Resistance Action Committe (IRAC) eClassification of Chemical Mode of Action

35. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS).

36. European Commission. Endocrine Disruptors: Study on Gathering Information on 435 Substances with Insufficient Data. Final Report. EU DG Environment: B4-3040/2001/325850/MAR/C2. BKH Consulting Engineers: M0355037. November 2002.

37. U.S. Geological Survey, Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001.

38. Thurman, E.M. and A.E. Cromwell. 2000. Atmospheric Transport, Deposition, and Fate of Triazine Herbicides and Their Metabolites in Pristine Areas at Isle Royale National Park. Environmental Science and Technology 34:3079-3085.

39. U.S. EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, New Active Ingredients Factsheets:

40. Mineau, P., A. Baril, B.T. Collins , J. Duffe, G. Joerman, R. Luttik. 2001. Reference values for comparing the acute toxicity of pesticides to birds. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 170:13-74.

41. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. 2009. AMAP Assessment 2009: Human Health in the Arctic.

42. Hageman, et al. 2006. Atmospheric Deposition of Current-Use and Historic-Use Pesticides in Snow at National Parks in the Western United States. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2006, 40 (10), pp 3174–3180.

43. Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Database.

44. Federal Register. September 5, 2008.

45. Federal Register. March 21, 2003.

46. Fluoride Action Alert Pesticide Project Factsheets.

47. EPA docket ID EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0324. August 17, 2011.

48. USDA/Forest Service. Dinotefuran: Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Final Report. April 24, 2009.

49. U.S. Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration. 2000. Halosulfuron: Herbicide Fact Sheet

50.IUPAC Agrochemical Information.

51. Federal Register. Fenbuconazole Pesticide Tolerance. January 15, 2002.

52. California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Public Reports on New Active Ingredients

53. EPA Pesticide Registration Review Status

54. National Toxiocology Program. 14th Report on Carcinogens. Nov 3, 2016.

55. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Pesticide Information.

56. PAN Pesticide Database.

57. Yueh, MF et al. 2014. The commonly used antimicrobial additive triclosan is a liver tumor promoter. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.141911911. Triclosan promotes liver cancer cell development and proliferation in mice through pathways common to humans.

58. Kim, J et al. 2017. Triclosan affects axon formation in the neural development stages of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Environmental Pollution doi: 10.1016/j.enjvpol.2017.12.110.

59. Lassen et al. 2016. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants. Environmental Health Perspectives doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409637. Prenatal triclosan exposure associated with reduced head circumference, a trait linked to cognitive impairment.

60. Stuart, M et al. 2012. Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Science of the Total Environment 416, 1-21. UK Environment Agency detected triclosan in groundwater 22 times in 22 sites over the period 1992-2009, at a maximum concentration of 2.11 µg/L.

61. Karnjanapiboonwong, A et al. 2011. Occurrence of PPCPs at a Wastewater Treatment Plant and in Soil and Groundwater at a Land Application Site. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 216(1-4), 257-273. Triclosan detected in 5 out of 7 groundwater samples from a West Texas Land Application Site, at concentrations ranging 12-53 ng/L.

62. Parenti, CC et al. 2018. Environmental concentrations of triclosan activate cellular defence mechanism and generate cytotoxicity on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Science of the Total Environment 650, 1752-1758. Triclosan levels commonly found in the environment invoke oxidative stress immune responses and cause high levels of cell death in zebrafish embryos.

63. Lee, HR et al. 2014. Progression of Breast Cancer Cells Was Enhanced by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, Triclosan and Octylphenol, via an Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Cellular and Mouse Xenograft Models. Chemical Research in Toxicology doi: 10.1021/tx5000156.

64. Riad, M et al. 2017. Reproductive toxic impact of subchronic treatment with combined butylparaben and triclosan in weanling male rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol doi: 10.1002/jbt.22037. Treatment with triclosan alone causes testicular oxidative stress and DNA damage, leading to a marked reduction in sperm count and sperm motility.

65. Jurewicz, J et al. 2017. Environmental levels of triclosan and male fertility. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25(6), 5484-5490. Men with higher urinary concentrations of triclosan have poorer semen quality, exhibiting a greater percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology as compared to men with lower triclosan levels.

66. Kang, D. et al., 2008. Cancer incidence among pesticide applicators exposed to trifluralin in the Agricultural Health Study. Environmental Research, 107(2), 271-276. Regression analysis of pesticide exposures and cancer incidence across a cohort of 50,127 private and commercial pesticide applicators show that above-average levels of trifularlin exposure significantly predict incidence of colon cancer, controlling for lifestyle factors and other agricultural exposures.

67. Kılıç, Z.S., Aydın, S., Bucurgat, Ü.Ü. and Başaran, N., 2018. In vitro genotoxicity assessment of dinitroaniline herbicides pendimethalin and trifluralin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 113, 90-98. Trifluralin exposure at concentrations as low as 1.7 ppb causes significant damage to DNA and chromosomes in human peripheral lymphocytes, demonstrating genotoxicity as a mechanism of carcinogenicity. 

68. Saghir, S.A., Charles, G.D., Bartels, M.J., Kan, L.H., Dryzga, M.D., Brzak, K.A. and Clark, A.J., 2008. Mechanism of trifluralin-induced thyroid tumors in rats. Toxicology Letters, 180(1) 38-45. Trifluralin treatment increased the conjugation and excretion of thyroid hormones (TH), thereby increasing pituitary production of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and causing thyroid tumor development. The mode of action for tumor promotion by trifluralin has relevance to human health, as increased bile excretion coupled with decreased functioning of a shared class of thyroid hormone binding agents would be expected to cause similar effects in humans.

69. Emmerson, J.L., Pierce, E.C., McGrath, J.P., 1980. The chronic toxicity of compound 36352 (trifluralin) given as a compound of the diet to the Fischer 344 rats for two years. StudiesR-87 andR-97 (Elanco Products Co., Division of Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN). Cited in Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) on trifluralin, USEPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. EPA 738-R-95-040, April 1996. Chronic exposure to trifluralin causes thyroid tumor development in rats.

70. Zhang, L., Rana, I., Taioli, E., Shaffer, R.M. and Sheppard, L., 2019. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation ResearchMeta-analysis of every available published human study on NHL and glyphosate, including the most recently updated data from the ongoing U.S. Agricultural Health Study, published in 2018. Statistical analysis revealed a 41% increased risk of NHL resulting from high exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide.

71. EFSA, 2018. Peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance variant florpyrauxifen-benzyl:

72. Khanam, S., 2017. Effect of Carbaryl on Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Values of Broiler Chicks. Malaysian Journal of Medical Research, 1(2), pp.38-40.

73. Hussain R, Ali F, Rafique A, Ghaffar A, Jabeen G, Rafay M, Liaqat S, Khan I, Malik R, Khan MK, Niaz M, Akram K and Masood A, 2019. Exposure to sub-acute concentrations of glyphosate induce clinicohematological, serum biochemical and genotoxic damage in adult cockerels. Pak Vet J, 39(2): 181-186.

74. Neto da Silva, K., Garbin Cappellaro, L., Ueda, C.N., Rodrigues, L., Pertile Remor, A., Martins, R.D.P., Latini, A. and Glaser, V., 2020. Glyphosate-based herbicide impairs energy metabolism and increases autophagy in C6 astroglioma cell line. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, pp.1-15.

75. Rappazzo, K.M., Warren, J.L., Davalos, A.D., Meyer, R.E., Sanders, A.P., Brownstein, N.C. and Luben, T.J., 2019. Maternal residential exposure to specific agricultural pesticide active ingredients and birth defects in a 2003–2005 North Carolina birth cohort. Birth defects research, 111(6), pp.312-323.

76. Ledoux, M.L., Hettiarachchy, N., Yu, X., Howard, L. and Lee, S.O., 2019. Penetration of glyphosate into the food supply and the incidental impact on the honey supply and bees. Food Control, p.106859.

77. Zgurzynski, M.I. and Lushington, G.H., 2019. Glyphosate Impact on Apis mellifera Navigation: A Combined Behavioral and Cheminformatics Study. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology, 7, pp.806-824.

78. Rendón-von Osten, J. and Dzul-Caamal, R., 2017. Glyphosate residues in groundwater, drinking water and urine of subsistence farmers from intensive agriculture localities: a survey in Hopelchén, Campeche, Mexico. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(6), p.595.

79.Lennon, R.J., Peach, W.J., Dunn, J.C., Shore, R.F., Pereira, M.G., Sleep, D., Dodd, S., Wheatley, C.J., Arnold, K.E. and Brown, C.D., 2020. From seeds to plasma: Confirmed exposure of multiple farmland bird species to clothianidin during sowing of winter cereals. Science of the Total Environment, p.138056.

80. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, 1998. Memorandum - Isoxaflutole. Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed 2020.

81.Reuter, W., 2019. Toxicology of glyphosate, isoxaflutole, dicamba and possible combination effects. _Glyphosate _Dicamba_Isoxaflutole.pdf. Accessed 2020.

82. Mesnage, R., Biserni, M., Wozniak, E., Xenakis, T., Mein, C.A. and Antoniou, M.N., 2018. Comparison of transcriptome responses to glyphosate, isoxaflutole, quizalofop-p-ethyl and mesotrione in the HepaRG cell line. Toxicology reports, 5, pp.819-826.

83. Melo, C.A.D., Medeiros, W.N., Santos, L.T., Ferreira, F.A., Tiburcio, R.A.S. and Ferreira, L.R., 2010. Leaching of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soil profiles. Planta Daninha, 28(2), pp.385-392. 10.1590/S0100-83582010000200018

84. Hu, Y., Zhang, Y., Vinturache, A., Wang, Y., Shi, R., Chen, L., Qin, K., Tian, Y. and Gao, Y., 2020. Effects of environmental pyrethroids exposure on semen quality in reproductive-age men in Shanghai, China. Chemosphere, 245, p.125580. 

85. Walsh, E.M., Sweet, S., Knap, A., Ing, N. and Rangel, J., 2020. Queen honey bee (Apis mellifera) pheromone and reproductive behavior are affected by pesticide exposure during development. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 74(3), pp.1-14.

86. Park, A.S., Ritz, B., Yu, F., Cockburn, M. and Heck, J.E., 2020. Prenatal pesticide exposure and childhood leukemia–A California statewide case-control study. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 226, p.113486. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113486 

87. Anselmi, L., Bove, C., Coleman, F.H., Le, K., Subramanian, M.P., Venkiteswaran, K., Subramanian, T. and Travagli, R.A., 2018. Ingestion of subthreshold doses of environmental toxins induces ascending Parkinsonism in the rat. npj Parkinson's Disease, 4(1), pp.1-10. DOI: 10.1038/s41531-018-0066-0

88. Brouwer, M., Huss, A., van der Mark, M., Nijssen, P.C., Mulleners, W.M., Sas, A.M., Van Laar, T., de Snoo, G.R., Kromhout, H. and Vermeulen, R.C., 2017. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands. Environment international, 107, pp.100-110. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.001

89. Hou, L., Zhang, C., Wang, K., Liu, X., Wang, H., Che, Y., Sun, F., Zhou, X., Zhao, X. and Wang, Q., 2017. Paraquat and maneb co-exposure induces noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurodegeneration through NADPH oxidase-mediated microglial activation. Toxicology, 380, pp.1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.02.009

90. de Mattos, I.M., Soares, A.E. and Tarpy, D.R., 2018. Mitigating effects of pollen during paraquat exposure on gene expression and pathogen prevalence in Apis mellifera L. Ecotoxicology, 27(1), pp.32-44. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-017-1868-2

91. Badroo, I.A., Wani, K.A., Nandurkar, H.P. and Khanday, A.H., 2019. Renewal Acute Toxicity of Broad-Spectrum Herbicide, Paraquat Dichloride in Channa punctatus (Bloch). Environmental Claims Journal, 31(4), pp.289-303. DOI: 10.1080/10406026.2019.1609796

92. Ayanda, O.I., Oniye, S.J. and Auta, J.A., 2017. Behavioural and Some Physiological Assessment of Glyphosate and Paraquat Toxicity to Juveniles of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus. pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(1), pp.183-190. DOI: 10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.

93. Moustakas, M., Malea, P., Zafeirakoglou, A. and Sperdouli, I., 2016. Photochemical changes and oxidative damage in the aquatic macrophyte Cymodocea nodosa exposed to paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 126, pp.28-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2015.07.003

94. Verissimo, G., Moreira, J.C. and Meyer, A., 2018. Paraquat Contamination in Surface Waters of a Rural Stream in the Mountain Region in the State of Rio De Janeiro Southeastern Brazil. J Environ Toxicol Stud, 2(1). DOI:

95. Thi Hue, N., Nguyen, T.P.M., Nam, H. and Hoang Tung, N., 2018. Paraquat in Surface Water of Some Streams in Mai Chau Province, the Northern Vietnam: Concentrations, Profiles, and Human Risk Assessments. Journal of Chemistry, 2018. DOI: 10.1155/2018/8521012

96. Hojo, Y., Shiraki, A., Tsuchiya, T., Shimamoto, K., Ishii, Y., Suzuki, K., Shibutani, M. and Mitsumori, K., 2012. Liver tumor promoting effect of etofenprox in rats and its possible mechanism of action. The Journal of toxicological sciences, 37(2), pp.297-306.

97. Benli, A.C.K., 2015. The influence of etofenprox on narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823): Acute toxicity and sublethal effects on histology, hemolymph parameters, and total hemocyte counts. Environmental toxicology, 30(8), pp.887-894.

98. Pesticide Action Network, 2019. PAN Pesticide Database. 

99. De Coster, S. and Van Larebeke, N., 2012. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action. Journal of environmental and public health, 2012.

100. Hayashi, K., Nakae, A., Fukushima, Y., Sakamoto, K., Furuichi, T., Kitahara, K., Miyazaki, Y., Ikenoue, C., Matumoto, S. and Toda, T., 2010. Contamination of rice by etofenprox, diethylphthalate and alkylphenols: effects on first delivery and sperm count in mice. The Journal of toxicological sciences, 35(1), pp.49-55.

101. Terzaghi, E., Vitale, C.M. and Di Guardo, A., 2020. Modelling peak exposure of pesticides in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems: importance of dissolved organic carbon and vertical particle movement in soil. SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research, 31(1), pp.19-32.

102. Merola, V. and Dunayer, E., 2006. The 10 most common toxicoses in cats. VETERINARY MEDICINE-BONNER SPRINGS THEN EDWARDSVILLE-, 101(6), p.339. 

103. Pesticide Action Network, 2019. PAN Pesticide Database.

104. Mossa, A.T.H., Refaie, A.A., Ramadan, A. and Bouajila, J., 2013. Antimutagenic effect of Origanum majorana L. essential oil against prallethrin-induced genotoxic damage in rat bone marrow cells. Journal of medicinal food, 16(12), pp.1101-1107.

105. Bhaskar, E.M., Moorthy, S., Ganeshwala, G. and Abraham, G., 2010. Cardiac conduction disturbance due to prallethrin (pyrethroid) poisoning. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 6(1), pp.27-30.


107. Botnariu, G., Birsan, C., Podoleanu, C., Moldovan, C., Stolnicu, S. and Chiriac, A., 2016. Skin necrosis caused by prallethrin—A worldwide used insecticide. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology, 43, pp.103-104.

108. Na, H.G., Kim, Y.D., Choi, Y.S., Bae, C.H. and Song, S.Y., 2018. Allethrin and prallethrin stimulates MUC5AC expression through oxidative stress in human airway epithelial cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 503(1), pp.316-322.

109. Mossa, A.T.H., Refaie, A.A., Ramadan, A. and Bouajila, J., 2013. Amelioration of prallethrin-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rat by the administration of Origanum majorana essential oil. BioMed research international, 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/859085

110. Lerro, C.C., Hofmann, J.N., Andreotti, G., Koutros, S., Parks, C.G., Blair, A., Albert, P.S., Lubin, J.H., Sandler, D.P. and Beane Freeman, L.E., 2020. Dicamba use and cancer incidence in the agricultural health study: an updated analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology.

111.Herrero-Hernández, E., Simón-Egea, A.B., Sánchez-Martín, M.J., Rodríguez-Cruz, M.S. and Andrades, M.S., 2020. Monitoring and environmental risk assessment of pesticide residues and some of their degradation products in natural waters of the Spanish vineyard region included in the denomination of origin jumilla. Environmental Pollution, p.114666.

112. Stoker, T.E. and Kavlock, R.J., 2010. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In Hayes' Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology (pp. 551-569). Academic Press.

113. Knudsen, T.B., Martin, M.T., Kavlock, R.J., Judson, R.S., Dix, D.J. and Singh, A.V., 2009. Profiling the activity of environmental chemicals in prenatal developmental toxicity studies using the US EPA's ToxRefDB. Reproductive toxicology, 28(2), pp.209-219.

114. Ran, D., Wu, X., Zheng, J., Yang, J., Zhou, H., Zhang, M. and Tang, Y., 2007. Study on the interaction between florasulam and bovine serum albumin. Journal of fluorescence, 17(6), pp.721-726.

115. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Science Data Evaluation.

116. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), Pesticide Properties Database (PPDB), florasulam (Ref: DE 570).

117. The Dow Chemical Company, Product Safety Assessment, Florasulam.

118. Hernández-Borges, J., García-Montelongo, F.J., Cifuentes, A. and Rodríguez-Delgado, M.Á., 2005. Determination of herbicides in mineral and stagnant waters at ng/L levels using capillary electrophoresis and UV detection combined with solid-phase extraction and sample stacking. Journal of Chromatography A, 1070(1-2), pp.171-177.

119. Weber, G., Christmann, N., Thiery, A.C., Martens, D. and Kubiniok, J., 2018. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations. Science of the Total Environment, 619, pp.638-648.

120. Sandin, M., Piikki, K., Jarvis, N., Larsbo, M., Bishop, K. and Kreuger, J., 2018. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations in streamflow, drainage and runoff in a small Swedish agricultural catchment. Science of the Total Environment, 610, pp.623-634.

121. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Pesticide Fact Sheet.

122. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2012. Imazamox Chemical Fact Sheet.

123. Kaur, P., Kaur, P. and Kaur, K., 2020. Adsorptive removal of imazethapyr and imazamox from aqueous solution using modified rice husk. Journal of Cleaner Production244, p.118699.

124. Demirci, Ö., Toptancı, B.Ç. and Kızıl, M., 2016. In Vitro Studies on Pesticide-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage. Journal of the Turkish Chemical Society Section A: Chemistry3(3), pp.479-490. 

125. Di Marzio, W.D., Cifoni, M., Sáenz, M.E., Galassi, D.M. and Di Lorenzo, T., 2018. The ecotoxicity of binary mixtures of Imazamox and ionized ammonia on freshwater copepods: Implications for environmental risk assessment in groundwater bodies. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety149, pp.72-79.

126. Tsatsakis, A., Tyshko, N.V., Docea, A.O., Shestakova, S.I., Sidorova, Y.S., Petrov, N.A., Zlatian, O., Mach, M., Hartung, T. and Tutelyan, V.A., 2019. The effect of chronic vitamin deficiency and long term very low dose exposure to 6 pesticides mixture on neurological outcomes–A real-life risk simulation approach. Toxicology letters315, pp.96-106.

127. Taghizadehghalehjoughi, A. and Cicek, B., 2018. Momordica and Pycnogenol Can Tolerate Imazamox Induced Toxicity in L929 Cells Line: In Vitro Study. In Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute Proceedings (Vol. 2, No. 25, p. 1584).

128. Sevim, Ç., Çomaklı, S., Taghizadehghalehjoughi, A., Özkaraca, M., Mesnage, R., Kovatsi, L., Burykina, T.I., Kalogeraki, A., Antoniou, M.N. and Tsatsakis, A., 2019. An imazamox-based herbicide causes apoptotic changes in rat liver and pancreas. Toxicology reports6, pp.42-50.


130. Jabłońska-Trypuć, A., Wydro, U., Wołejko, E., Rodziewicz, J., and Butarewicz, A., 2020. Possible Protective Effects of TA on the Cancerous Effect of Mesotrione. Nutrients12(5), p.1343.

131. Jabłońska-Trypuć, A., Krętowski, R., Świderski, G., Cechowska-Pasko, M. and Lewandowski, W., 2020. Cichoric acid attenuates the toxicity of mesotrione. Effect on in vitro skin cell model. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, p.103375.

132. Piancini, L.D.S., Guiloski, I.C., de Assis, H.S. and Cestari, M.M., 2015. Mesotrione herbicide promotes biochemical changes and DNA damage in two fish species. Toxicology reports2, pp.1157-1163.

133. Albaugh, LLC, 2017. Safety Data Sheet for Mesotrione.

134. Syngenta, 2011. Tenacity Product Label.

135. Smith-Schoenwalder, C. 2019. EPA Approves Pesticide Harmful to Bees. Retrieved October 27, 2020, from

136. USEPA. 2010. Proposed Registration Review Final Decision for Nithiazine. Pesticide Re-evaluation Division. 

137. USEPA. 2016. Flonicamid Human Health Risk Assessment. Office of Pesticide Programs.

138. USEPA. Registration Review: Draft Human Health and/or Ecological Risk Assessments
for Several Pesticides (Flonicamid). Office of Pesticide Programs.

139. Corteva, 2012. DuPont Frontelis Fungicide. DUPONT FONTELIS FUNGICIDE.pdf (

140. USEPA, 2014. VELISTA Product Label. 

141. Jeong, M.H., Hong, S.S., Park, K.H., Kim, C.S., Park, J.E., Hong, M.K., Im, M.H., Kim, Y.B., Han, B.S. and Han, J.S., 2010. Toxicity Assessment and Establishment Acceptable Daily Intake of Penthiopyrad. The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science14(4), pp.478-489.

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