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Poison Poles – A Report About Their Toxic Trail and Safer Alternatives
Appendix B: Endnotes

Introduction | The Toxic Trail | The Chemical Actors | Regulatory History | Alternatives To Wood Poles | Penta | Arsenicals | Creosote | Copper Naphthelene


Introduction
  1. James Carter, National Rural Electric Cooperative. Personal Communication. December, 1996; Lash, Rural Utility Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Personal Communication. December, 1996.
  2. EPA, 1994. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage: 1992 and 1993 Market Estimates. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. June 1994.
  3. American Wood Preservers Institute, 1996. The 1995 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report, September 1996, p. 12. AWPI reports the use of 1,628,014,000 pounds of wood preservatives used in 1995: 138,470,000 pound s of CCA (Copper Chromated Arsenate), 8,693,000 pounds of other waterborne preservatives including 8,588,000 concentrate and 31,146,000 gallons of solvent which converts to 655,611,000 pounds using a desnity conversion of 16.5 pounds per gallon; and 92,00 0,000 gallons of creosote, which converts to 825,240,000 pounds, using a density conversion of 8.97 pounds per gallon.
  4. American Wood Preserver Institute, 1996. The 195 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report, September 1996.
  5. Ibid., p.7.
  6. EPA Finds Database, 1996.
  7. The Superfund program was created by Congress in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act.
  8. B. Staack. Treated Wood Waste [Draft Concept Paper]. California Department of Toxic Substance Control, January, 1996.
  9. Marie-Helene Racicot. Bell Canada's Solutions to Pole Storage Yards Contamination (Abstract of presentation), Bell Canada, Environmental Services, 1993-94 data.
  10. American Wood Preservers Institute, 1996.
  11. EPA, 1981. Creosote, Inorganic Arsenicals, Pentachlorophenol: Position Document 2/3. January 1981, Washington, D.C.
  12. Electrical World: Directory of Electric Power Producers, McGraw Hill, 1994.
The Toxic Trail | Top
  1. M. Erlandsson et al., 1992. Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles l- A life cycle analysis. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. Stockhom, Sweden, Paper prepared for the 23rd annual meeting.
  2. U.S. Forest Service, 1988. Managing Competing and Unwanted Vegetation. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Characterization and Management of Risk. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Pacific Northwest Region. November, 1988, p.30.
  3. Ibid., p.59.
  4. U.S. Forest Service, 1989. Vegetation Management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Southern Region. January, 1989. Pages 11-29.
  5. R. Rackleff, 1991. Out of Line. Environmental Action Nov./Dec.:15-18. Cited in Susan Cooper, Tracking the toxic plume, Pesticides and You, National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. August 1992, pp.10-13, 20-21.
  6. ATSDR, 1990. Toxicological Profile for Copper, December 1990, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR], Atlanta, GA.
  7. 6ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Chromium, April 1993, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  8. RTK Net, 1996. RTK Net Master Facility Report for Vulcan Chemical. November 20, 1996.
  9. Kansas Department of Health and Environment, 1996. TRI chemicals reported over the years by Vulcan Chemicals, Right to Know Program, November 20, 1996.
  10. National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides, 1991. Fires and Spills Inflame the Public, Pesticides and You, Vol. 11, No. 2.
  11. M. Steve Cringan, 1991. Regional Ambient Fish Tissue Monitoring Program and Kansas Follow-up Studies Program, 1989 Summary Report, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Topeka, KS.
  12. ATSDR, 1994. Draft Toxicological Profile for Creosote (Coal Tar and Wood), Coal Tar and Coal Tar Pitch, August 1994, ATSDR, Washington DC.
  13. USEPA, 1989. Acute Hazardous Events Database, Final Report, EPA-230-06-89-061. EPA, Washington, DC, cited in Cooper, 1992.
  14. J. Hellwig, 1987. Report on the study of the prenatal toxicity of metam-sodium in rabbits after oral administration; J. Hellwig and B. Hildebrand, 1987. Report on the study of the prenatal toxicity of metam-sodium in rats after oral administration; US-EPA, S.C. Dapson, and Y.M. Ioannou, 1991. Teratology-developmental toxicity species rat; NCAMP. 1991. Testimony on the metam sodium incident before the U.S. House of Representatives, as cited in: Cooper, 1992
  15. The 1995 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report, Vienna Virginia: American Wood Preservers Institute, 1996, p.1.
  16. AWPI, 1996, p.9.
  17. AWPI, 1996, p.1.
  18. RW Stephens et al., 1996. Draft Final Report, Wood Preservation SOP [Strategic Options Process] Socioeconomic Background Study. Carroll-Hatch (International) Ltd, North Vancouver, B.C. Prepared for Environment Canada Regulatory Economic Assessment B ranch, Contract No. K2231-5-0054. March 31, 1996.
  19. AWPI, 1996, p.2.
  20. AWPI, 1996, p.7.
  21. Creosote, Creosote-Coal Tar, Creosote Petroleum
  22. Pentachlorophenol, Copper Naphthenate, and others.
  23. ACC, ACQ, ACZA, CCA and others.
  24. Stephens et al., 1996, p.3.
  25. Williams, P.L. 1982. Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 43:799-810, cited in: Brett Fisher, 1991. Pentachlorophenol: Toxicology and Environmental Fate. Journal of Pesticide Reform, Volume 11, Number 1 , Spring 1991. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR.
  26. ATSDR, 1993. ToxFAQs: Arsenic, April 1993 URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/tfacts2.html
  27. ATSDR, 1996. Site Contaminant Query, URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/gsql/sitecontam.script?in_cas=pentachlorophenol&in_cas2=&in_cas3= Results: PCP contaminated sites: 1 substance_alias_name 2 cas_registry_number 3 substance_record 4 contamina nt_records 5 Number_of_Sites: PENTACHLOROPHENOL 000087-86-5 info 1005 314
  28. ATSDR, 1989. Public Health Statement: Chromium, July 1989, URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs8810.html
  29. ATSDR, 1990. Public Health Statement: Copper, December 1990, URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs9008.html
  30. ATSDR, 1996. Site Contaminant Query, URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/gsql/sitecontam.script?in_cas=creosote&in_cas2=&in_cas3=
  31. Stephens et al., 1996, p.59.
  32. Stephens et al., 1996, p.60.
  33. Stephens et al., 1996, pp.55-56.
  34. GE Brudermann, 1995. Recommendations for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities. Draft Report for Environment Canada, Industrial Programs Branch. Cited in Stephens et al., 1996, p.6.
  35. Stephens et al., 1996, p.8.
  36. ATSDR, 1994. Draft Toxicological Profile for Creosote.
  37. ATSDR, 1990. Toxicological Profile for Copper.
  38. ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Chromium.
  39. ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, April 1993, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  40. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol, May 1994, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  41. Richard Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort: Lumber Mills, Log Cabins, Leukemia, Lymphomas and Soft Tissue Sarcomas: The Case Against Pentachlorophenol. URL: http://seamless.com /alexanderlaw/txt/article/penta.shtml
  42. R.E. Cline et al., 1989. Pentachlorophenol measurements in body fluids of people in log homes and workplaces. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 18:475-481.
  43. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol, May 1994, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  44. EPA, 1981. Position Document 2/3.
  45. Stephens et al., 1996, p.52.
  46. Racicot, 1995.
  47. B Staack. Treated Wood Waste [Draft Concept Paper]. California Department of Toxic Substance Control. January, 1996.
  48. Utility Data Institute’s U.S. Electric Power Business Directory and Database, 1996..
  49. Stephens et al., 1996, p.4.
  50. Stephens et al., 1996, p.8.
  51. David McCrea, 1988. Arsenic in lumber. Citizen’s Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes. Environmental Health Monthly (September 30):2-7; Bureau of National Affairs, 1990. $450,000 award won by worker who developed arsenic poisoning. Occupational S afety and Health Reporter. (November 7):984, cited in Caroline Cox, 1991. Chromated Copper Arsenate, Journal of Pesticide Reform 11(1):19-23.
  52. David McCrea, 1988.
  53. Bureau of National Affairs, 1990.
  54. Stephens et al., 1996, p.52.
  55. J.J. Morrell, 1994. Field decisions to extend wood pole life, in J.J. Morrell, editor, Utility Pole Conference Proceedings, November 9-10, 1994 conference sponsored by Northwest Electric Light and Power Association and others.
  56. Personal communication between Jay Feldman and utilities in Oregon, Washington, Nebraska, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, December, 1996.
  57. J.J. Morrell, 1994.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Gosselin, 1976. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products 4th Ed II-68.
  60. DOT, 1984. Emergency Response Guidebook, G-56.
  61. F.J. De Serres and A. Hollaender, 1984. Chemical Mutagens Vol. 13, p. 466.
  62. NFPA, 1978. Fire Protection Guide: Hazard Materials, pp.49-97.
  63. U.S. EPA, OPP, Registration Division, Washington, DC September 30, 1982, Guidance for the Reregistration of Manufacturing Use and Certain End Use Pesticide Products Containing Chloropicrin, p. 7.
  64. Micromedix, Inc., POISINDEXR 1974, p.13.
  65. Hazardous Substances Database. U.S. National Library of Medicine. February 14, 1992.
  66. Morrell, 1994.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Les D. Klonning, 1994. Wood utility poles, in Morrell, editor, 1994.
  69. Adam G. Hedayat, 1994. Recycling of utility treated wood poles, in Morrell, editor, 1994.
  70. Ibid.
  71. Ibid.
  72. Ibid.
  73. Ibid.
  74. Ibid.
  75. Ibid.
The Chemical Actors | Top
  1. Keith R. Solomon and John E. Warner, 1990 . Persistence, leaching, and bioavailability of CCA and pentachlorophenol wood preservatives . Final report to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, July 2 . Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  2. ATSDR, 1993. Draft Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), October 1993, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  3. Barry L. Johnson, 1992. Public Health Service Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, House Committee on Government Operations, June 10, 1992 at URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/test-06-10-92.html.
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987 (March). Pentachlorophenol health advisory. Washington, DC: Office of Drinking Water; 33. Agriculture Canada. 1987. Pentachlorophenol discussion document. Ottawa, Ontario: Pesticides Directorate; Witte, I. e t al. 1985. DNA-damaging properties and cytotoxicity in human fibroblasts of tetrachlorohydroquinone, a pentachlorophenol metabolite. Mutation Research 145:71-75 . Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  5. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Creosote, August 1994, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  6. ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic.
  7. ATSDR, 1990. Toxicological Profile for Copper.
  8. EPA, 1984. Guidance for Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data for Use in Fish Advisories, Vol II. EPA, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.
  9. Ibid.
  10. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Creosote; World Wildlife Fund, 1996. Known and Suspected Hormone Disruptors List, URL: http://www.wwfcanada.org/hormone-disruptors/list.htm.
  11. World Wildlife Fund, 1996 .
  12. ATSDR, 1992. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol . Cited in: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  13. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement, December 1990. URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs9009.html
  14. ATSDR, 1995. TxoFAQs: Cresols, September 1995. URL: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/tfacts34.html
  15. Ibid.
  16. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Creosote.
  17. Greene, et al., Familial and Sporadic Hodgkin's Disease Associated with Occupational Wood Exposure, The Lancet, September 16, 1978, pp. 626-27; Goldstein, et al., Effects of Pentachlorophenol on Hepatic Drug/Metabolizing Enzymes and Porphyria Related to Contamination with Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans [1977] Biochem. Pharmacol. 26:1549-57. Cited in: Alexander, 1996. Dioxin in pentachlorophenol.
  18. Hardell, et al., Malignant Lymphoma and Exposure to Chemicals, Especially Organic Solvents, Chlorophenols and Phenoxy Acids: A Case-Control Study [1981], British Journal of Cancer, 43:169-76;Milham, Study of Mortality Experience of AFL-CIO United Bro therhood of Carpenters and Joiners of American, 1969-70 [1974], DHEW Pub. No. 74-129, Springfield, Virginia, National Technical Information Service; Jappinen, et al., Cancer Incidence of Workers in Finnish Sawmill [1989], Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 15 :18-23; Morton and Marjanovic, Leukemia Incidences By Occupation in Portland-Vancouver Metropolitan Area [1984] Am. J. Ind. Med. 6:185-205; Burkart, Leukemia in Hospital Patients with Occupational Exposure to Sawmill Industry[1982], West. J. Med. 137:440- 441; Erickson, et al., Study on Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors of Soft Tissues and Exposure to Chemical Substances [1979], Lahartidningen 76:3872-75; Hardell, Malignant Lymphoma of Histiocytic Type and Exposure to Phenoxyacetic Acids or Chlorophenols [1979] , Lancet i:56; Milham and Hessler, Hodgkin's Disease in Woodworkers [1967] Lancet ii: 136-37. Cited in: Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort.
  19. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Two Pentachlorophenol Technical-Grade Mixtures (CAS No. 87-86-5) in B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies), TR-349, URL: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.g ov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR349.html; Environmental Health Criteria 71, Pentachlorophenol, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1987, pp. 11-12. Cited in: Alexander, 1996. Dioxin in pentachlorophenol; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Pentachloroph enol health advisory; Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 43:799-810; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. Identification and listing of hazardous waste; Wood preserving. Federal Register 55(235):5045 0-50490 . Cited in: Fisher, 1991; EPA, 1996. Pentachlorophenol, Integrated Risk Information System, last revised 1/1/96.
  20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987. Pentachlorophenol health advisory; Agriculture Canada. 1987. Pentachlorophenol discussion document. Ottawa, Ontario: Pesticides Directorate . Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  21. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachloroanisole (CAS No. 1825-21-4) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies), TR-414, Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies Report Date: April 1993, NTIS# PB94-104536. URL: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR414.html
  22. ATSDR, 1989. Arsenic Public Health Statement.
  23. ATSDR, 1989. Public Health Statement: Chromium.
  24. Kerkvliet, et al., Humoral Immunotoxicity of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Ethers, Phenoxyphenols, Dioxins and Furans Present as Contaminants of Technical Grade Pentachlorophenol [1985], Toxicology, 36:307-24 (see extensive articles cited). Cited in: Alex ander, 1996. A Developing Toxic .
  25. National Research Council, Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, 1977 . Arsenic . Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; World Health Organization, 1981 . Arsenic, Environmental Health Criteria 18 . Geneva, UNE P/ILO/WHO . Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  26. 36. Roberts, H.J. 1990. Pentachlorophenol-associated aplastic anemia, red cell aplasia, leukemia and other blood disorders. J. Florida Med. Assn. 77(2):86-90; O"Donoghue, J.L. (Ed.). 1985. Neurotoxicity of industrial and commercial chemicals. Vol. II . Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 140-142 . Cited in: Fisher, 1991; World Health Organization, 1981 . Arsenic, Environmental Health Criteria 18 . Geneva, UNEP/ILO/WHO . Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  27. ATSDR, 1990. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,
  28. National Toxicology Program, 1991. Creosote, Coal Tar. NTP Chemical Repository (Radian Corporation, August 29, 1991) URL: http://ntp-db.niehs.nih.gov/NTP_R eports/NTP_Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem8/Radian8001-58-9.txt
  29. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement.
  30. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978. Pentachlorophenol position document 1. Washington, DC.: Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances . Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  32. Edwards, I. Ralph, Donald G. Ferry, and Wayne A. Temple. (1991) Fungicides and Related Compounds. in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Volume 3 Classes of Pesticides. Wayland J. Hayes and Edward R. Laws Editors. Academic Press, Inc. NY . Cited in: Co operative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  33. National Research Council, Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, 1977 . Arsenic . Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; World Health Organization, 1981 . Arsenic, Environmental Health Criteria 18 . Geneva, UNE P/ILO/WHO . Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  34. ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic.
  35. ATSDR, 1994. Draft Toxicological Profile for Creosote.
  36. NRDC and Natural Resources Council of Maine, ?. Petition to prohibit the discharge of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by pulp and paper mills, Appendix A: Scientific support document.
  37. EPA, 1993. Interim Report on Data and Methods for Assessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Risks to Aquatic Life and Associated Wildlife.
  38. M.T. Wan, 1992. Utility and railway right-of-way contaminants in British Columbia: chlorophenols, J. Environ Qual 21:225-231; M.T. Wan and J. Van Oostdam, 1995. Utility and railway rights-of-way contaminants: dioxins, J Environ Qual 24:257-265; N. Gu rprasad, M. Constable, N. Haidar, and Edna Cabalo, 1995. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PDCCs) leaching from pentachlorophenol-treated utility poles, Organohalogen Compounds 24:501-503; E.A. Dixon and S.J. Morante, 1995. Dynamics of soil contamination by the wood preservatives pentachlorophenol, chromated copper arsenate and copper naphthenate, report submitted to International Utility Structures, Inc.
  39. Solomon et al., 1990 . Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  40. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol.
Regulatory History | Top
  1. Office of Pesticide Programs. Pest Smart, Update # 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. December, 1994.
  2. EPA, 1978. Initiation of Schedule for Review of Wood Preservative Pesticides and Notice of Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration and Continued Registration of Certain Pesticides. 40 CFR 48154, October 18, 1978.
  3. T. Shistar et al. Unnecessary Risks: The Benefit Side of the Pesticide Risk-Benefit Equation. National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. 1992.
  4. National Research Council. Alternative Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1989, p.218.
  5. 46 FR 13020. February 19, 1981.
  6. EPA. Wood Preservative Position Document 2/3. Executive Summary, p.3.
  7. Ibid.
  8. EPA, 1981. Position Document 2/3. January 1981, Washington, D.C.
  9. EPA, 1984. Notice of Intent to Cancel Registrations of Pesticide Products Containing Creosote, Pentachlorophenol (Including its Salts), and the Inorganic Arsenicals. 49 FR 28666, July 13, 1984.
  10. EPA, 1985. Notice of Settlement Agreement. In the Matter of Chapman Chemical Co., et al., Petitioners. FIFRA Docket Nos. 529, et al. C. Jablon, Kevin Lee et al. Office of General Counsel. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. September 30, 1985.
  11. EPA, 1986. Notice of Settlement Agreement. In the Matter of Chapman Chemical Co. Et al., Petitioners. FIFRA Docket Nos. 529, et al. C. Jablon, P. Roberts, M. Winer. Office of General Counsel. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. November 7, 1986, p. 4.
  12. Ibid.
  13. EPA, 1987. Final Determination and Notice of Intent to Cancel and Deny Application for Registrations of Pesticide Products Containing Pentachlorophenol (including but not limited to its salts and esters) for nonwood uses. Office of Pesticides and Tox ic Substances. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. January 21, 1987, p.6.
  14. L. Urquhart, 1995. Memo re. Draft Terms of Reference, Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives to Wood Products treated with CCA, ACA, Pentachlorophenol or Creosote, October 10, 1995, p.1.
  15. Staack. 1996. Treated Wood Waste: Draft Concept Paper.
  16. Ibid.
Alternatives To Wood Poles | Top
  1. Erlandsson, M et al., 1992. Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles - A life cycle analysis. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. Stockholm, Sweden. Paper prepared for the 23rd annual meeting.
  2. Steel Recycling Institute, 1996. The Inherent Recycled Content of Today's Steel.
  3. David Sulc, Environmental Engineer, NuCor, Crawfordsville, IN. Personal Communication. January 6, 1997.
  4. Steel Recycling Institute, 1996. Buy Recycled with Recyclable Steel.
  5. Erlandsson, 1992. p.4-5.
  6. Sulc, 1997.
  7. Holger , Environmental Scientist, Center for the Biology of National Systems, Queens College, Flushing, NY, personal communication, January 6, 1997; H. Eisl, 1996. Zeroing Out Dioxin in the Great Lakes: Within Our Reach, Center for the Biology of Na tural Systems, Queens College, Flushing, NY, June, 1996.
  8. Erlandsson, 1992. p.5.
  9. Bob Jack, International Utility Structures, Inc. Pesonal communication. January 3, 1996
  10. Tom Sanderson, Valmont Industries, personal communication. January 3, 1996.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Jack, personal communication.
  13. Erlandsson, 1992. P.7.
  14. Environment Protection Agency, 1994. Application of Enhanced Public Participation and Stronger Combustion Permitting Requirements. Memorandum document number 530-F-94-017. May 23, 1994 as cited in M.A. Richardson, 1995. Recyling or Disposal? Hazardo us Waste Combustion in Cement Kilns, American Lung Association, Lansing, MI and Washington, DC.
  15. Stuart A. Batterman and Yuli Huang. Evaluation of the Screening Analysis for the Texas Industries Facility in Midlothian, Texas. American Lung Association of Texas. May 1, 1996.
  16. Edward Kleppinger, Cement clinker: an environmental sink for residues from hazardous waste treatment in cement kilns, Waste Management 13: 553-572, 1993. Cited in Richardson, 1995.
  17. M.A. Richardson, 1995.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Garry Bradford, Vice-President, Sales & Marketing, StressCrete Limited. Personal Communication. January 2, 1996.
  20. 19Shakespeare. Company literature. undated.
  21. EPA, 1990. Suspended, Cancelled and Restricted Pesticides. February, 1990.
  22. G. Lynn Derrick, Vice President, Sales & Marketing, Shakespeare Products Group. Personal Correspondence. November 15, 1996.
  23. 22John Hawarth, Engineering Manager, Tillamook People’s Utility District, Tillamook, OR. personal communication. December, 1996.
  24. Mitch Hawkins, Distribution Engineer, Public Utility District of Douglas County, East Wenatchee, WA, personal communication. December 1996.
  25. Helen Palmer, buyer, Eastern Utility Association, West Bridgewater, MA, personal communication. January 2, 1997.
  26. Barry Stocker, Procurement Analyst, Pennsylvania Power & Light, Allentown, PA. personal communication. December, 1996.
  27. Steve Stone, Electric Superintendent and Betty Irish, Assistant Store Keeper, City of Alliance, Alliance, NE. personal communication. December, 1996.
Appendix A: Chemicals-At-A-Glance

Penta
| Top
  1. American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI). The 1995 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report. September 1996, p.12.
  2. Ibid., p.7.
  3. Braun, et al., 1977. The Pharmokinetics and Metabolism of Pentachlorophenol in Rats, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 41:395-406. Richard Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort: Lumber Mills, Log Cabins, Leukemia, Lymphomas and Soft Tissue Sarcomas: The C ase Against Pentachlorophenol, Url: http://seamless.com/alexanderlaw/txt/article/penta.shtml
  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. Suspended, Cancelled, and Restricted Pesticides. Washington, D.C.: Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances; Williams, P.L. 1982. Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 43:799-810; Embree, V. et al. 1984. Occupational exposure to chlorophenates: toxicology and respiratory effects. Clinical Toxicology 22(4):317-329; Kauppinen, T. and L. Lindroos. 1985. Chlorophenol exposure in sawmills. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 46( 1):3438; Kleinman, G. et al. 1986. Industrial hygiene, chemical and biological assessments of exposures to a chlorinated phenolic sap stain control agent. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 47(12):731-741; Jones, R.D. 1986. Absorption study of pentachlorophenol in p ersons working with wood preservatives. Human Toxicology 5:189-194. Cited in: Brett Fisher, 1991. Pentachlorophenol: Toxicology and Environmental Fate. Journal of Pesticide Reform, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1991. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR.
  5. Braun, et al., 1977; Uhl, et al., Pharmokinetics of Pentachlorophenol in Man [1986], Arch. Toxicol. 58:182-186. Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987 (March). Pentachlorophenol health advisory. Washingto n, DC: Office of Drinking Water; Heath, Clark et al. 1981 (September 21). Pentachlorophenol wood preservative exposure in residents of log home. Louisville, Kentucky. Atlanta: Public Health Service, Center for Environmental Health, Chronic Diseases Divisi on. EPI-80-60-2. Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  6. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  7. Morgan, D.P. 1989. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.p. 73. Cited in: Fisher, 1991; Ecobichon, Donald J. 1991. Toxic Effects of Pesticides. In Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons. Third Edition. Curtis D. Klaassen, Mary O. Amdur, and John Doull editors. Macmillan Publishing Company, NY. Cited by: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  8. Kehoe, et al., Toxic Effects Upon Rabbits of Pentachlorophenol and Sodium Pentachlororphenate [1959], J. Ind. Hyg. Tox. 21: 160. Richard Alexander, 1996. Dioxin in pentachlorophenol: a case study of cancer deaths in the lumber industry, URL: http://s eamless.com/alexanderlaw/article/lumber.shtml
  9. Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort.
  10. Roberts, H.J. 1990. Pentachlorophenol-associated aplastic anemia, red cell aplasia, leukemia and other blood disorders. J. Florida Med. Assn. 77(2):86-90; O'Donoghue, J.L. (Ed.). 1985. Neurotoxicity of industrial and commercial chemicals. Vol. II. Bo ca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 140-142. Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  11. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  12. Brandt and Schmidt, Chronische Lebererkrankung durch langjahrige Intoxikation im Haushalt mit Pentachlorophenol [1977], Deutschen Gesellschaft fur innere Medizin, pp. 1609-11; Gebefugi, et al., Occurrence of Pentachlorophenol in Enclosed Environments [1979] Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 3:269-300. Cited by: Richard Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort.
  13. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  14. Roberts, 1990; O'Donoghue, (Ed.). 1985. pp. 140-142. Cited in: Fisher, 1991.
  15. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1978. Pentachlorophenol position document 1. Washington, DC.: Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Cited by Fisher, 1991.
  17. Edwards, I. Ralph, Donald G. Ferry, and Wayne A. Temple. (1991) Fungicides and Related Compounds. in Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, Volume 3 Classes of Pesticides. Wayland J. Hayes and Edward R. Laws Editors. Academic Press, Inc. NY. Cited by: Coo perative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93.
  18. Kerkvliet, et al., Humoral Immunotoxicity of Polychlorinated Diphenyl Ethers, Phenoxyphenols, Dioxins and Furans Present as Contaminants of Technical Grade Pentachlorophenol [1985], Toxicology, 36:307-24 (see extensive articles cited). Cited by Alexa nder, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort.
  19. EPA, 1996. Pentachlorophenol, Integrated Risk Information System, last revised 1/1/96.
  20. Greene, et al., Familial and Sporadic Hodgkin's Disease Associated with Occupational Wood Exposure, The Lancet, September 16, 1978, pp. 626-27; Goldstein, et al., Effects of Pentachlorophenol on Hepatic Drug/Metabolizing Enzymes and Porphyria Related to Contamination with Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans [1977] Biochem. Pharmacol. 26:1549-57. Cited by: Alexander, 1996. Dioxin in pentachlorophenol.
  21. Hardell, et al., Malignant Lymphoma and Exposure to Chemicals, Especially Organic Solvents, Chlorophenols and Phenoxy Acids: A Case-Control Study [1981], British Journal of Cancer, 43:169-76;Milham, Study of Mortality Experience of AFL-CIO United Bro therhood of Carpenters and Joiners of American, 1969-70 [1974], DHEW Pub. No. 74-129, Springfield, Virginia, National Technical Information Service; Jappinen, et al., Cancer Incidence of Workers in Finnish Sawmill [1989], Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 15 :18-23; Morton and Marjanovic, Leukemia Incidences By Occupation in Portland-Vancouver Metropolitan Area [1984] Am. J. Ind. Med. 6:185-205; Burkart, Leukemia in Hospital Patients with Occupational Exposure to Sawmill Industry[1982], West. J. Med. 137:440- 441; Erickson, et al., Study on Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors of Soft Tissues and Exposure to Chemical Substances [1979], Lahartidningen 76:3872-75; Hardell, Malignant Lymphoma of Histiocytic Type and Exposure to Phenoxyacetic Acids or Chlorophenols [1979] , Lancet i:56; Milham and Hessler, Hodgkin's Disease in Woodworkers [1967] Lancet ii: 136-37. Cited by:Alexander, 1996. A Developing Toxic Tort.
  22. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Two Pentachlorophenol Technical-Grade Mixtures (CAS No. 87-86-5) in B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies), TR-349, Url: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR349.html; Environmental Health Criteria 71, Pent achlorophenol, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1987, pp. 11-12. Cited by: Alexander, 1996. Dioxin in pentachlorophenol; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987. Pentachlorophenol health advisory; Williams, P.L. 1982. Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. 43:799-810; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1990. Identification and listing of hazardous waste; Wood preserving. Federal Register 55(235):50450-50490. Cited by: Fisher, 1991; EPA, 1996. Pentachlor ophenol, Integrated Risk Information System, last revised 1/1/96.
  23. EPA, 1996. Pentachlorophenol, Integrated Risk Information System.
  24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1987 (March). Pentachlorophenol health advisory. Washington, DC: Office of Drinking Water; Agriculture Canada. 1987. Pentachlorophenol discussion document. Ottawa, Ontario: Pesticides Directorate. Cited by: Brett Fisher, 1991. Pentachlorophenol: Toxicology and Environmental Fate. Journal of Pesticide Reform, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 1991. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR, citing references.
  25. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachloroanisole (CAS No. 1825-21-4) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Feed Studies), TR-414, Pathology Tables, Survival and Growth Curves from NTP 2-year Studies Report Date: April 1993, NTIS# PB94-104536. Url: http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/htdocs/LT-studies/TR414.html
  26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987. Pentachlorophenol health advisory; Williams, 1982; Agriculture Canada. 1987. Pentachlorophenol discussion document. Ottawa, Ontario: Pesticides Directorate; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990. Ident ification and listing of hazardous waste. Cited by: Fisher, 1991.
  27. ATSDR, 1992. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Draft. Cited by: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  28. Ibid; EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol. Url: gopher://ecosys.drdr.Virginia.EDU/00/library/gen/toxics/Pentachlorophenol.
  29. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  30. Mercier, M. 1981. Organochlorine pesticides. p. 170. Pergamon Press. Cited in: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  31. ATSDR, 1992. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol. Cited in: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  32. NRDC and the Natural Resources Council of Maine, 1993. Petition to prohibit the discharge of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by pulp and paper mills, Appendix A, Scientific Support Document.
  33. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  34. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  35. ATSDR, 1992. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol. Cited in: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  36. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  37. M.T. Wan, 1992. Utility and railway right-of-way contaminants in British Columbia: chlorophenols, J. Environ. Qual. 21:225-231.
  38. E.A. Dixon and S.J. Morante, 1995. Dynamics of soil contamination by the wood preservatives pentachlorophenol, chromated copper arsenate and copper naphthenate, report submitted to International Utility Structures, Inc. August 1995.
  39. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  40. Murray, H.E., L.E. Ray and C.S. Giam. 1981. Chemosphere10: 1327-34; IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Human. 1979. Vol 20: 303-325. Cited by: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol, ExToxNet fac tsheet, revised 9/93.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Ibid.
  43. USGS, 1996. USGS Fact Sheet 122-96, Pesticides in Public Water Supply Wells of Washington State.
  44. National Library of Medicine (1992). Hazardous Substances Databank. TOXNET, Medlars Management Section, Bethesda, MD, citing Williams, W. Martin, Patrick W. Holden, Douglas W. Parsons, and Matthew N. Lorber. Pesticides in Ground Water Data Base 1988 Interim Report. 1988. E.S. EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division. Cited by: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene, ExToxNet factsheet, revised 9/93
  45. Metcalf, R.L., I.P. Kapoor, Po-Yung Lu, C.K. Schuth, and P. Sherman, 1973. Model Ecosystem Studies of Environmental Fate of Six Organochlorine Pesticides, Environmental Health Perspectives, Experimental Issue 4:35-44. Cited by: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene.
  46. NRDC and the Natural Resources Council of Maine, 1993
  47. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol; Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  48. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  49. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol; EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  50. EPA, 1986. Chemical Fact Sheet: Pentachlorophenol.
  51. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Pentachlorophenol.
  52. Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene.
  53. Metcalf et al., 1973. Cited in: Cooperative Extension Agency, 1993. Hexachlorobenzene.
  54. NRDC and the Natural Resources Council of Maine, 1993.
  55. Mary O'Brien, 1990. A crucial matter of cumulative impacts: toxicity equivalency factors, Journal of Pesticide Reform 10(2):23-27, NCAP, Eugene, OR.
  56. NRDC and the Natural Resources Council of Maine, 1993.
Arsenicals | Top
  1. American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI). The 1995 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report. September, 1996, p.12.
  2. Ibid., p.7.
  3. ATSDR, 1989. Arsenic Public Health Statement, March 1989, Url: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs8802.html
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. 5World Health Organization, 1981. Arsenic, Environmental Health Criteria 18. Geneva, UNEP/ILO/WHO. Cited in: Caroline Cox, 1991. Chromated Copper Arsenate, Journal of Pesticide Reform 11(1):23-27, Spring 1991, NCAP, Eugene, OR.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. National Research Council, Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, 1977. Arsenic. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; World Health Organization, 1981. Arsenic, Environmental Health Criteria 18. Geneva, UNEP/IL O/WHO. Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  10. Ibid.
  11. ATSDR, 1989. Arsenic Public Health Statement, March 1989, Url: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs8802.html
  12. Ibid.
  13. National Research Council, 1977. Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  14. ATSDR, 1993. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, April 1993, ATSDR, Washington, DC.
  15. Keith R. Solomon and John E. Warner, 1990. Persistence, leaching, and bioavailability of CCA and pentachlorophenol wood preservatives. Final report to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, July 2. Cited in Cox, 1991.
  16. Ibid.
Creosote | Top
  1. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement, December 1990. Url: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/ToxProfiles/phs9009.html
  2. Ibid.; National Toxicology Program, 1991. Creosote, Coal Tar. NTP Chemical Repository (Radian Corporation, August 29, 1991) Url: http://ntp-db.niehs.nih.gov/NTP_Reports/NTP_Chem_H&S/NTP_Chem8/Radian8001-58-9.txt
  3. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement.
  4. American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI), The 1995 Wood Preserving Industry Production Statistical Report. September, 1996, p. 12.
  5. Ibid., p.7.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid; ATSDR, 1995. ToxFAQs: Cresols, September 1995. Url: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/tfacts34.html
  9. ATSDR, 1995. ToxFAQs: Cresols.
  10. National Toxicology Program, 1991. Creosote, Coal Tar.
  11. ATSDR, 1995. ToxFAQs: Cresols, September 1995. Url: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/tfacts34.html
  12. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement.
  13. National Toxicology Program, 1991. Creosote, Coal Tar
  14. ATSDR, 1990. Creosote, ATSDR Public Health Statement.
  15. Ibid.
  16. ATSDR, 1995. ToxFAQs: Cresols, September 1995.
  17. Ibid.
  18. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Creosote, August 1994, ATSDR, Atlanta, GA.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.; World Wildlife Fund, 1996. Known and Suspected Hormone Disruptors List, Url: http://www.wwfcanada.org/hromone-disruptors/list.htm.
  21. ATSDR, 1994. Toxicological Profile for Creosote.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Ibid.
Copper Naphthelene | Top
  1. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1993. Copper naphthenate, CHEMINFO database.
  2. California Department of Pesticide Regulation, 1996. Cop-R-Nap, Pesticide Product Database, downloaded November 21, 1996.
  3. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1993; National Library of Medicine, 1995. Naphthenic acids, Hazardous Substances Database on Silver Platter.
  4. National Library of Medicine, 1995.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 1993.
  8. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Copper naphthenate, Hazardous Substances Database on Silver Platter, citing R.E. Bluhm et al, 1992. J. Toxicol Clin Toxicol 30(1):99-108.
  9. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Copper naphthenate.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Naphthenic acids, Hazardous Substances Database on Silver Platter.
  13. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Naphthenic acids.
  14. Steven Cohen, 1979. Environmental and occupational exposure to copper, in Jerome O. Nriagu (ed.), Copper in the environment, Part II: Health effects, pp. 1-16. New York, John Wiley and Sons. Cited in: Caroline Cox, 1991. Chromated copper arsenate, Jo urnal of Pesticide Reform, Spring 1991.
  15. EPA, 1984. Tox One-Liner, Copper naphthenate.
  16. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Naphthenic acids.
  17. Keith R. Solomon and John E. Warner, 1990. Persistence, leaching and bioavailability of CCA and pentachlorophenol wood preservatives. Final report to the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, July 2; Wesley J. Birge and Jeffrey A. Black, 1979. Effects of copper on embryonic and juvenile stages of aquatic animals, in Jerome O. Nriagu (ed.), Copper in the environment, Part II: Health effects, pp. 374-397. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons. Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  18. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Copper naphthenate.
  19. U.S. Department of Transportation, 1995. Copper naphthenate, CHRIS database on Silver Platter; Peter V. Hodson, Uwe Borgmann, and Harvey Shear, 1979. Toxicity of copper to aquatic biota; Wesley J. Birge and Jeffrey A. Black, 1979. Effects of copper o n embryonic and juvenile stages of aquatic animals, both in Jerome O. Nriagu (ed.), Copper in the environment, Part II: Health effects, pp. 374-397. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons. Cited in: Cox, 1991.
  20. National Library of Medicine, 1995. Naphthenic acids.

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